Organic Chemistry: The Energy it Takes

In this blog post, I will explain how an atom can bond to so many different things, and how it does that. This blog post will deal with hybridization and atomic orbitals forming bonds. For the purposes of my course, I will be dealing with s, p, sp, sp2, and sp3 orbitals.

Everyone wants to share something special, even atoms if that something special is electrons. But the atoms need to be of the right configuration to share electrons. From here on out, these will only be notes:

Atomic orbitals vs molecular orbitalsImage result for atomic orbital diagram

  • p can only create pi bonds.
  • s can form bonds with sp, sp2, sp3, and other s
  • Hydrogen only have s to bond with
  • Carbon changes according to the atoms its bonded with: sp, sp2, sp3. It must hybridize to have a bond

    Related image
    Copyright (c) Google Images
  • Bonded atoms form lower energy configurations than their respective bond substituents
  • There are sigma and pi bonds
  • sigma bonds can form between any hybridized orbital and an s bond or another hybridized orbital
  • pi bonds can only happen between p orbitals
  • sigma bonds are the most low energy
  • pi bonds are slightly higher in energy
  • anti-bonds (both sigma and pi) are higher energy and unstable. Repeat: the electrons do not want to go there

Hybridization types

When an orbital wants an electron very much, it may change

Image result for hybridization
For the use of my course, I will be using up to sp3 hybridization.
  • MO energies and MO diagrams
  • Resonance and MOOrganic

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